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Research and academic ethics

in: Ethics

Ethics for Academics and Research

The National Research Council recognized the importance of research ethics. As a result, they initiated the scheme to bring the standard of the research ethics up to the same level nationally. The plan was revised and advised by senior researchers in various fields until it became concise and appropriate enough to receive the approval of the Executive Committee of the National Research Council. The agreed-upon research ethics then became the code of conduct for every researcher.



Researcher refers to the person who methodically seeks new knowledge to answer a question or to clarify a doubt. The procedure used must be organized and accepted in its field, including the principles, visions, and collection and analysis of data.


Ethics refer to the appropriate code of conduct that is considered moral for each corresponding professions. Ethics are agreed upon by the members of each profession such that every member can follow in order to uphold the reputation and the honor of one’s profession.


Research ethics refer to the code of conduct for any researcher. It encourages researches’ procedure to be based on morality and ethics such that the standard and the honor of the researchers are upheld.


Researcher ethics guidelines


Principle 1 - Researchers must maintain honesty and moral standards in academics and in management.

Researchers must be honest and must not plagiarize. The research of others must be given respect and must be correctly referenced. They must be honest about research fund-raising and the benefits derived from the research.

1.1 Researchers must be honest to themselves and others.

  • Researchers must be honest throughout the research process, which includes choosing the research subject, recruiting research members, carrying out research, and obtaining benefits from the research.
  • Researchers must respect others by referencing specific persons, sources of information, and comments used in the research.


1.2 Researchers must be honest when raising research funds.

  • Researchers must honestly and straightforwardly present information and ideas for research funding consideration.
  • Researchers must present their research project with honesty by not applying for funding from multiple sources for the same project. 


1.3 Researchers must be fair about the benefits of their research.

  • Benefits from research must be distributed fairly.
  • Researchers must present their work honestly and not steal other’s intellectual property.


Principle 2 - Researchers must be aware of the contract they agreed on with the supporting organization and the organization that they report to.


Researchers must follow the contractual obligations that all colleagues had agreed on. They must commit time to the research in order to achieve the best result possible within the given time limit. Lastly, they must not neglect their other work responsibilities at the same time.


2.1 Researchers must be aware of the research contract.

  • Researchers must study the funder’s conditions and regulations thoroughly in order to prevent disputes that may rise in the future.
  • Researchers must completely follow the conditions and regulations stipulated in the agreement.


2.2 Researchers must commit time to their research.

  •  Researchers must commit knowledge, ability, and time into their research in order to achieve a quality and beneficial result.


2.3 Researchers must be responsible to their research.

  • Researchers must be responsible. They must turn their work in by the time limit and must not neglect their work without a reasonable cause. They must not abuse the contract and agreements.
  • Researchers are responsible in reporting the complete version of the research findings so that the research would be used for further benefits.


Principle 3 - Researchers must have the basic knowledge regarding their topic of research.

Not only should researchers have the sufficient knowledge regarding their topic of research, they must have experience or expertise required for a quality research. This is to prevent mistakes in interpretation, evaluation or analysis, leading to the wrong conclusion and eventually causing damage to the research.

3.1    Researchers must have the sufficient knowledge, experience or expertise required for a quality research.

3.2    To protect the reputation of the academic circle, the researchers are obligated to meet the criteria and standard related to their field of research.



Principle 4 - Researchers must take responsible for their research subjects, both living and non-living.

Researchers must be cautious and ethical in dealing with research subjects, making sure to do no harm to people, animals, plants, culture, natural resources and the environment.

4.1    Only use human or animal subjects when absolutely necessary.

4.2    Researchers must keep in their conscience to do no harm to people, animals, plants, cultures, natural resources and the environment.

4.3    Researchers must take full responsibility in the consequences to oneself, their subjects and the society.


Principle 5 - Researchers must respect the rights and dignity of their human subjects.

Researchers must not consider their academic agenda more crucial than the rights of fellow human beings; they must make it their commitment to fully explain the purpose of their research to the subjects. Researchers should not be violating the subjects’ rights or force them against their will.

5.1    Researchers must respect their human subjects’ rights by gaining a full consent.

5.2    Researchers must treat their human and animal subjects with kindness not allowing their academic agenda to cause damage or conflicts.

5.3    Researchers must protect the rights and confidentiality of their subjects.


Principle 6 - Researchers must be intellectually objective and avoid placing personal bias in any step of the research.

Researchers must be aware that personal or academic bias may contaminate the findings damaging their research.

6.1    Researchers must have the freedom of thoughts, not working under anyone’s influence.

6.2    Researchers must act under the guideline of academic facts and without bias.

6.3    Researchers must present their research truthfully, not intentionally diverting their research hoping for personal benefits or damaging others.



Principle 7 - Researchers shall use their research for the greater good.

Researchers shall publish their research for the benefit of academia and society. They must not exaggerate their findings and must not use the findings in unethical ways.

7.1    Researchers must be cautious and take full responsibility for the publication of their research.

7.2    Researchers shall publish their research for the benefit of academia and society, not for their personal benefits.

7.3    Researchers must be truthful in presenting their findings without exaggerating or tampering with their findings without the evidence or proper inspections by academia.



Principle 8 - Researchers shall respect academic ideas and beliefs of others.

Researchers should be open to others’ ideas and suggestions with appropriate reasoning as well as being open and honest with the details of their research. This is to allow the right improvements for the research.

8.1     Researchers should be approachable and be open to discussions. They should be willing to assisting colleges and other academics to achieve a good understanding of their research.

8.2      Researchers should be accepting to reasonable suggestions in improving their research to build a better knowledge beneficial to their research.



Principle 9 - Researchers should be responsible towards their institutions, societies, and the human race.

Researchers should have the willingness to devote their knowledge and ability for the good of their institutions, societies, and the human race.

9.1    Researchers should be considerate and cautious about picking the topic of their research by keeping the greater good of their institute and society in mind.

9.2    Researchers should conduct research for the benefit of society and must not be involved in research that involves acts against the law, peace or morality of the citizens.

9.3    Researchers should seek to devote time, kindness and knowledge to the next generation of researchers.



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